PRESSURE MANAGEMENT INDICATOR (PMI)
The Gold Standard in Pressure Management Tools
The Pressure Management Indicator is a compact yet comprehensive questionnaire that measures the major factors involved in the stress process and delivers an accurate picture of a person’s current stress profile.
- Based on an extensive body of occupational stress research
- Extensively benchmarked - lots of comparative data
- The world's first questionnaire designed to measure all aspects of occupational stress
- Integrated - follows a clear model
- Standardised - well proven
- Reliable - gives an accurate measurement
- Valid - measures what it's supposed to measure
- Multilingual - available in a range of languages
The PMI is designed to measure all aspects of occupational stress and has been translated into over 20 languages. It has been used extensively throughout the world in the areas of organisational analysis, stress counselling, stress training and occupational health. It is available as a multi-lingual online, email or paper & pencil questionnaire.
The PMI Profile - Individual, Team and Organisational Results
The PMI is based on the four-way model of stress as outlined in Our Approaches. This model examines the relationship between four elements of the stress process; Postivie and Negative Effects, Sources of Pressure, Personality and Coping Strategies (individual differences).
The Personal Profile Report is divided into 3 main sections:
- effects (your satisfaction with your job and organisation, and your mental and physical wellbeing),
- sources of pressure (where your pressure comes from) and
- individual differences (how your behaviour and coping skills help you to manage pressure).
In each of these sections your scores are displayed under the categories shown on the diagram, called the PMI scales, and these are compared with the average score for the working population.
The narrative text is variable, allowing the profile to be tailored to match the individual responses and results. Please click here to view a sample copy of the online generated Personal Profile.
Background to the PMI
The PMI was developed from the OSI, the world’s first integrated occupational stress questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed to provide a comprehensive, integrated, compact measure of the various dimensions of occupational stress and is used extensively throughout the world in the areas of organisational analysis, stress counselling, stress training and occupational health.
The PMI takes between 15 to 25 minutes to complete, consists of 146 questions and is grouped into 24 subscales consisting of a Demographic Details section plus eight further sections as follows:
- You and your organisation
- How you feel about your job
- How you feel or behave
- Your physical health
- The way you behave generally
- How you interpret events around you
- Sources of pressure in your job
- How you cope with pressure you experience
The outcome scales measure job satisfaction and organisational satisfaction, organisational security, organisational commitment, anxiety/depression (state of mind), resilience, worry (confidence), physical symptoms and energy.
The sources of pressure scales cover pressure from workload, relationships at work, career development (recognition), the organisational climate, managerial role, personal responsibility, home demands and daily hassles.
The behavioural and coping variables measure drive, impatience, control, decision latitude and the coping strategies of problem focus, life work balance and social support (emotional detachment).
Home and Work Balance
The primary focus of the PMI is workplace stress. It is recognised that personal stress is both a significant contributor to and a result of workplace stress and in practical terms it is not appropriate to separate the two. The PMI therefore contains both a sources of pressure scale and a coping scale that that includes home / work balance.
In addition, the demographic section of the questionnaire investigates issues of personal wellbeing and enables factors such as significant life events, illness, and activity levels to be evaluated. It is therefore possible to attribute the negative effects of stress to specific work issues, non-work issues, or a combination of the two.
Administration of the PMI
The questionnaire is available in hard copy paper & pencil, internet or intranet versions and many organisations use a combination of all of these delivery systems.
The scoring is fully automated using a sophisticated database that scores and calculates individual results, and stores the data for subsequent analysis, interpretation and benchmarking. The system also includes a comprehensive narrative report generator that produces a detailed, individual profile. The system can be networked and has been used on a variety of operating systems.
The PMI has also been incorporated into a full health risk assessment tool that has enabled longitudinal data to be collected across the entire workforce to help clarify the relationship between stress and pressure and a wide variety of bio-medical measures such as coronary risk, smoking and drinking behaviour, fitness and activity levels and so on.
Data Analysis and Comparative Data
The Pressure Management Indicator is designed to provide useful information to individuals (the personal profile), workgroups (the group profile) and the organisation (a detailed overall report). This analysis is provided through the data aggregation systems built into the PMI survey methodology.
The PMI has an extensive normative database. Our current dataset is based on a working population of over 50,000 people, though it is thought the PMI has been used by in excess of 100,000 people world-wide. We are able categorise this population by industry sector, job type, grade, gender, age, length of service, working hours and a wide variety of other criteria.
The PMI, and its predecessor the OSI, have been subject to extensive academic scrutiny. The ongoing development of the instrument has significantly improved the validity and reliability of the scales. All of the PMI scales have acceptable levels of reliability.
The PMI has been adopted as the global standardised stress measurement tool by several major UK and US corporations. To support the global use of the PMI, we are continuing to increase the number of foreign language versions of the questionnaire and the Personal Profile reports.
The research version of the PMI has been translated into more than 20 languages and forms the basis of a major international study into occupational stress. This ongoing project, The Collaborative and International Study of Management Stress (CISMS), has involved researchers in over 23 nations including those from Asia, Western and Eastern Europe, and North and South America.
Although this study was restricted to managers, there is strong evidence to suggest that the instrument in its various foreign language translations is appropriate for the entire workforce.
In summary, the PMI is a more powerful tool designed for groups and individuals who need a detailed understanding of the stress process and their group or personal stress profile. It's extremely well validated, we have benchmark data on over 50,000 people and powerful reporting methods. Please contact us to discuss your requirements and how WorkingWell might be able to help you.